Emerging challenges for sustainable agriculture During the past fifty years, agricultural development policies have been remarkably successful at emphasizing external inputs as the means to increase food production. This has led to growth in global consumption of pesticides, inorganic fertilizer, animal feed-stuffs, and tractors and other machinery.
Overview[ edit ] Coffee harvest in Ethiopia. Coffee, which originated in Ethiopia, is the largest foreign exchange earner. Agriculture accounted for Despite this potential, however, Ethiopian agriculture has remained underdeveloped. Because of drought, which has repeatedly affected the country since the early s, a poor economic base low productivity, weak infrastructure, and low level of technologyand overpopulation, the agricultural sector has performed poorly.
For instance, according to the World Bank between and agricultural production dropped at an annual rate of 2.
Consequently, the country faced a famine that resulted in the death of nearly 1 million people from to The beneficial climate in the Highlands of Ethiopia also enabled irrigation and other advanced agricultural technology.
To make matters worse, during the drought and famine the imperial government refused to assist rural Ethiopians and tried to cover up the crisis by refusing international aid. As a result, up toEthiopians perished. The MPP included credit for the purchase of items such as fertilizers, improved seeds, and pesticides; innovative extension services; the establishment of cooperatives; and the provision of infrastructure, mainly water supply and all-weather roads.
The program, designed for rural development, was first introduced in a project called the Chilalo Agricultural Development Union. The program later facilitated the establishment of similar internationally supported and financed projects at Ada'a Chukala just south of Addis AbabaWelamoand Humera.
By the Ministry of Agriculture's Extension and Project Implementation Department had more than twenty-eight areas with more than extension and marketing centers.
Although the MPPs improved the agricultural productivity of farmers, particularly in the project areas, there were many problems associated with discrimination against small farmers because of a restrictive credit system that favored big landowners and tenant eviction.
As a result, agriculture continued to grow, albeit below the population growth rate. According to the World Bank, agricultural production increased at an average annual rate of 2.
According to the World Bank, agricultural production increased at an average annual rate of 0. During the same period —87population increased at an average annual rate of 2. The poor performance of agriculture was related to several factors, including drought; a government policy of controlling prices and the free movement of agricultural products from surplus to deficit areas; the unstable political climate; the dislocation of the rural community caused by resettlement, villagization, and conscription of young farmers to meet military obligations; land tenure difficulties and the problem of land fragmentation; the lack of resources such as farm equipment, better seeds, and fertilizers; and the overall low level of technology.
There was much debate as to whether or not these reforms were genuine and how effectively they could be implemented. Nonetheless, agricultural output rose by an estimated 3 percent inalmost certainly in response to the relaxation of government regulation. This modest increase, however, was not enough to offset a general decrease in GDP during the same period.
Of Ethiopia's total land area of 1, square kilometers, the government estimated in the late s that 15 percent was under cultivation and 51 percent was pasture.
It was also estimated that over 60 percent of the cultivated area was cropland. Forestland, most of it in the southwestern part of the country, accounted for 4 percent of the total land area, according to the government.
In Ethiopia's lowlands, for example, the presence of malaria kept farmers from settling in many areas. Most of these farmers lived in the Ethiopian Highlandsmainly at elevations of 1, to 3, meters.
There are two predominant soil types in the highlands. The first, found in areas with relatively good drainage, consists of red-to-reddish-brown clayey loams that hold moisture and are well endowed with needed minerals, with the exception of phosphorus.
The second type consists of brownish-to-gray and black soils with a high clay content.
agricultural technology management agency ATMA is a registered society of key stakeholders involved in agricultural activities for sustainable development in the district by integrating research-extension activities and decentralizing day to day management of Public Agricultural Technology . of ecosystem management as central features of its development. Where will solutions come from? As many governments have retreated from agricultural investment there is a shifting re-organization of roles Food and Agriculture: The future of sustainability. Agricultural and Biosystems Engineering Theses and Dissertations. Follow. Systematic analysis of industry engagement activities on student learning in the undergraduate technology program, Caleb Burns. PDF. Effects of drainage water management in Southeast Iowa.
These soils are found in both the northern and the southern highlands in areas with poor drainage. They are sticky when wet, hard when dry, and difficult to work. But with proper drainage and conditioning, these soils have excellent agricultural potential.
Sandy desert soils cover much of the arid lowlands in the northeast and in the Ogaden of southeastern Ethiopia. Because of low rainfall, these soils have limited agricultural potential, except in some areas where rainfall is sufficient for the growth of natural forage at certain times of the year.
These areas are used by pastoralists who move back and forth in the area following the availability of pasture for their animals. Where the topography permits, they are suitable for farming.
The soils of the Great Rift Valley often are conducive to agriculture if water is available for irrigation. The Awash River basin supports many large-scale commercial farms and several irrigated small farms. Over the centuries, deforestation, overgrazing, and practices such as cultivation of slopes not suited to agriculture have eroded the soil, a situation that worsened considerably during the s and s, especially in Eritrea, Tigray, and parts of Gondar and Wollo.
In addition, the rugged topography of the highlands, the brief but extremely heavy rainfalls that characterize many areas, and centuries-old farming practices that do not include conservation measures have accelerated soil erosion in much of Ethiopia's highland areas.The concept of Agriculture Technology Management Agency (ATMA) has been initiated in by Ministry of Agriculture, GOI under the NATP.
ATMA is an autonomous organization facilitated by National Agricultural Technology Project (NATP) with an objective of integrating research and extension work with the help of. krishikosh (कृषिकोश) thesis: agrotags: “impact of agricultural technology management agency (atma) on socioeconomic status of tribal farmers in surguja district of chhattisgarh” “impact of agricultural technology management agency (atma) on socioeconomic status of tribal farmers in surguja district of chhattisgarh”.
THE ROLE OF AGRICULTURE IN THE DEVELOPMENT OF MYANMAR ECONOMY By Nyein Zin Soe THESIS Submitted to School of Public Policy and Management, KDI in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF ECONOMICS AND PUBLIC POLICY.
5. ANALYSIS OF DANFOSS DHBA SUPPLY CHAIN MANAGEMENT 53 WHY DHBA IS FOCUSING ON SUPPLY CHAIN MANAGEMENT 53 DH SUPPLY CHAIN VISION AND STRATEGIES 54 Customer Service Strategy 55 Manufacturing Strategy 57 Outsourcing Strategy 59 Purchasing Strategy 60 Infrastructure 61 A reservoir of Indian Theses.
Centurion University of Technology and Management Chandigarh University 2. Sam Higginbottom Institute of Agriculture, Technology and Sciences Sant Gadge Baba Amravati University Sant Longowal Institute of Engineering and Technology Agricultural Technology Management Agency (ATMA) extension functionaries are authorized personnel, who help the farmers by transferring technology from research station to them.
But during technology dissemination, they have to face a lot of difficulties.