Poverty is an uncomfortable word. Just as the phrase middle class tells us little about a person, the word poverty typically tells us little about the students we serve.
PinIt Instapaper Pocket Email Print Economists may disagree a lot on policy, but we all agree on the "education premium" -- the earnings boost associated with more education.
But what role can education play in a realistic antipoverty policy agenda? And what are the limits of that role? First, it depends on whether you're talking about children or adults, and schooling versus job training.
And second, the extent to which education is rewarded depends on what else is going on in the economy. Duncan's companion piece page A20 suggests, investment in early childhood has immense benefits.
And at the other end of the schooling spectrum, college graduates' wage advantage over those with only a high-school diploma went up dramatically in the s and early '90s. But the premium that high-school graduates enjoy over dropouts has been flat for decades. Inhigh-school grads earned about And for adult workers, the historical record for job-training programs is pretty dismal, though more recent initiatives -- with their focus on more carefully targeting training for local labor markets -- show much more promise.
Nobody doubts that a better-educated workforce is more likely to enjoy higher earnings.
But education by itself is a necessary insufficient antipoverty tool. Yes, poor people absolutely need more education and skill training, but they also need an economic context wherein they can realize the economic returns from their improved human capital.
Over the past few decades, the set of institutions and norms that historically maintained the link between skills and incomes have been diminished, particularly for non-college-educated workers.
Restoring their strength and status is essential if we want the poor to reap the benefits they deserve from educational advancement. What Research Shows Julie Strawn of the Center for Law and Social Policy, reviewing an extensive sample of basic education and training programs, concluded that education alone is much less successful in raising employment and earnings prospects than education combined with a strategy of focused job training with an eye on local demand"soft skills," and holding out for quality jobs.
One study found that a year of schooling raised the earnings of welfare recipients by 7 percent, the conventional labor economics finding. Strawn reports that when education is combined with multidimensional job training, readiness, and a quality job search, the returns more than double.
One Portland, Oregon, program resulted in a 25 percent increase in earnings, a 21 percent increase in employment, and a 22 percent reduction of time spent on welfare all compared with a control group that didn't get the services.
This finding makes intuitive sense: Programs that combine general education with training specific to both the individual and his or her local labor market work better than ones that fail to combine these activities. They're also more expensive, but you get what you pay for.
Yet to get to the nub of the strengths and limits of education and poverty reduction, we need to go back to first principles and think about how they interact with the realities of the political economy. Education is only a partial cure for poverty because of all the other recent changes in the labor market.
At least half of the inequality increase has taken place within groups of comparably educated people, and since that proportion has been increasing.
Income-inequality data show that the concentration of income in is the highest it has been since Yet research that Lawrence Mishel and I conducted shows that since the late s, the college wage premium has been flat.11 Facts About Education and Poverty in America Welcome to regardbouddhiste.com, a global movement of 6 million young people making positive change, online and off!
The 11 facts you want are below, and the sources for the facts are at the very bottom of the page. Just as the phrase middle class tells us little about a person, the word poverty typically tells us little about the students we serve.
We know, for example, that the poor and middle classes have many overlapping values, including valuing education and the importance of hard work (Gorski, ). POVERTY AND EDUCATION: FINDING THE WAY FORWARD 5 • Minority students disproportionately attend schools that are segregated by race and income.
For example, 38 and 43 percent of Black and Hispanic students, respectively, attend schools that have a student body that is composed of 90 to percent minority students.
like these are in effect throughout the nation and are successful in mitigating the impact of poverty, but more is needed. Poverty stills stands as the most insidious enemy of education.
POVERTY AND ITS IMPACT ON EDUCATION: TODAY AND TOMORROW Thought & Action.
Uninsured Children by Poverty Status, Age, and Race and Hispanic Origin (percent) Source: U.S. Census Bureau, Current Population Reports.
Income, Poverty, and Health Insurance Coverage in the United States: This systemic economic and racial isolation looms as a huge obstacle for efforts to make a quality education available to all American students.
the negative impact of concentrated poverty on.