However, although Engels wrote in the s, his book was not translated into English until the late s, and his expression did not enter everyday language until then. Credit for popularising the term may be given to Arnold Toynbeewhose lectures gave a detailed account of the term.
Kimuyu The emergence of computerized medical imaging in early s, which merged with digital technology in the s, was celebrated as a major breakthrough in three-dimensional 3D medicine. The study explored the suitability of the Direct Linear Transformation as a method for the determination of 3D coordinates of targeted points from multiple images acquired with the Statscan X-ray system and optimization of the scan range.
This investigation was carried out as a first step towards the development of a method to determine the accurate positions of points on or inside the human body.
The major causes of errors in three-dimensional point localization using Statscan images were firstly, the X-ray beam divergence and secondly, the position of the point targets above the X-ray platform. The experiments carried out with two reference frames showed that point positions could be established with RMS values in the mm range in the middle axis of the X-ray patient platform.
This range of acceptable mm accuracies extends about 15 to 20 cm sideways towards the edge of the X-ray table and to about 20 cm above the table surface. Beyond this range, accuracy deteriorated significantly reaching RMS values of 30mm to 40 mm. The experiments further showed that the inclusion of control points close to the table edges and more than 20 cm above the table resulted in lower accuracies for the L - parameters of the DLT solution than those derived from points close to the center axis only.
As the accuracy of the L - parameters propagates into accuracy of the final coordinates of newly determined points, it is essential to restrict the space of the control points to the above described limits.
If one adopts the usual approach of surrounding the object by known control points, then the limited space with an acceptable accuracy potential for the L - terms would not be large enough to enclose an adult human body surrounded by suitably positioned control points. This shortcoming can be overcome by making use of two further observations made in the course of this investigation.
These observations were firstly, that the best image orientation angles are 00 and toand secondly, that no significant improvement could be achieved when using more than two images.
This observation contradicts the theory of adjustment and observations, and can be investigated in further research. The possible observation method deduced from this is as follows: First, a frame with well distributed control points with accurate 3D coordinates and of approximately the size of a human body is placed on the X-ray table and imaged with the X-ray beam in the 0 degree position.
This makes it possible to determine L - parameters for this ray orientation; 2. The frame is removed; the patient is positioned in the control space; and an X-ray image of the patient is taken 3. The X-ray source is rotated to a new position between and and a second image of the patient is acquired and fourth, the patient is removed and replaced by the frame.
A final image of the frame is now acquired. This approach can only then result in accurate point positions, if the patient remains motionless for the duration of steps 2 and 3.
An alternative to this observation design would be simultaneous imaging from two X-ray sources, one with 00 orientations and the other with an orientation between and Siregar The aim of the research was to acquire resistance callus of Tamarillo Solanum betaceum Cav.
The study was designed by Factorial randomized design, consisting of two factors: UV-B light power; 10, 20 and 30 watts, and exposure time 30, 60 and 90 seconds. The Colletorichum filtrate added into medium ppm as resistant selection. Callus gained by selection were analyzed by peroxidase and polyphenoloxidase activity changing.
Analysis of both enzymes activity showed decreased of protein levels at all samples. But after selection of Colletorichum filtrate, both enzymes showed increasing of theirs protein levels. The samples after selection showed more tolerant against filtrate compared to control, the highest value obtained in the treatment of UV-B radiation of 20 watts and exposure time of 30 seconds for peroxidase and 20 watt and 60 seconds for polyphenoloxidase.
The lowest protein content for both enzyme found on control treatments.Another influential historiographical claim about the scientific revolution, but this time one that does not seek to explain its origins but its cultural impact, links the development of the scientific revolution with a vigorous reassertion of patriarchal values and the subjection of women.
Scientific Revolution and Enlightenment: 18th Century Europe. Chapters 18 and STUDY. PLAY. that was caused by the Scientific Revolution in which people questioned their beliefs, themselves, and institutions, striving for knowledge and reason French-educated who believed humans were machines determined by outside forces and had no.
The Energy Racket. By Wade Frazier. Revised in June Introduction and Summary. A Brief Prehistory of Energy and Life on Earth. Early Civilization, Energy and the .
Further Complexity for the Scientific Revolution. As a periodization, the Scientific Revolution has grown increasingly complex. As it has attempted to take account of new research and alternative perspectives, new additions and alterations have been made.
The Scientific Revolution of the 17th Century and The Political Revolutions of the 18th Century At first glance, there may not seem to be much of a connection between the "Scientific Revolution" that took place in Western Europe starting in the 17th century CE, and the political revolutions that took place in Western Europe and its colonies beginning in the late 18th century.
The information age is not free from its perils. This may sound like an oxymoron.
But there is a growing body of evidence that clearly raise serious concerns of increasing influence of technology in our daily lives.