Follow your desire as long as you live, and do not perform more than is ordered, do not lessen the time of following desire, for the wasting of time is an abomination to the spirit
Follow your desire as long as you live, and do not perform more than is ordered, do not lessen the time of following desire, for the wasting of time is an abomination to the spirit Aristotlein Book IV of his Physicsdefined time as the number of changes with respect to before and after, and the place of an object as the innermost motionless boundary of that which surrounds it.
In Book 11 of St. If no one asks me, I know: In contrast to ancient Greek philosophers who believed that the universe had an infinite past with no beginning, medieval philosophers and theologians developed the concept of the universe having a finite past with a beginning, now known as Temporal finitism.
The Christian philosopher John Philoponus presented early arguments, adopted by later Christian philosophers and theologians of the form "argument from the impossibility of the existence of an actual infinite", which states: In "tying the visual perception of space to prior bodily experience, Alhacen unequivocally rejected the intuitiveness of spatial perception and, therefore, the autonomy of vision.
Without tangible notions of distance and size for correlation, sight can tell us next to nothing about such things. Idealistsby contrast, deny or doubt the existence of objects independent of the mind. Some anti-realistswhose ontological position is that objects outside the mind do exist, nevertheless doubt the independent existence of time and space.
InImmanuel Kant published the Critique of Pure Reasonone of the most influential works in the history of the philosophy of space and time. He describes time as an a priori notion that, together with other a priori notions such as spaceallows us to comprehend sense experience.
Kant denies that neither space or time are substanceentities in themselves, or learned by experience; he holds, rather, that both are elements of a systematic framework we use to structure our experience. Spatial measurements are used to quantify how far apart objects are, and temporal measurements are used to quantitatively compare the interval between or duration of events.
Although space and time are held to be transcendentally ideal in this sense, they are also empirically real—that is, not mere illusions. Some idealist writers, such as J. McTaggart in The Unreality of Timehave argued that time is an illusion see also The flow of timebelow. The writers discussed here are for the most part realists in this regard; for instance, Gottfried Leibniz held that his monads existed, at least independently of the mind of the observer.
Absolutism and relationalism[ edit ] Leibniz and Newton[ edit ] The great debate between defining notions of space and time as real objects themselves absoluteor mere orderings upon actual objects relationalbegan between physicists Isaac Newton via his spokesman, Samuel Clarke and Gottfried Leibniz in the papers of the Leibniz—Clarke correspondence.
Arguing against the absolutist position, Leibniz offers a number of thought experiments with the purpose of showing that there is contradiction in assuming the existence of facts such as absolute location and velocity. These arguments trade heavily on two principles central to his philosophy: The principle of sufficient reason holds that for every fact, there is a reason that is sufficient to explain what and why it is the way it is and not otherwise.
The identity of indiscernibles states that if there is no way of telling two entities apart, then they are one and the same thing.
The example Leibniz uses involves two proposed universes situated in absolute space.
The only discernible difference between them is that the latter is positioned five feet to the left of the first. The example is only possible if such a thing as absolute space exists.
Therefore, it contradicts the principle of sufficient reason, and there could exist two distinct universes that were in all ways indiscernible, thus contradicting the identity of indiscernibles. Water in a bucket, hung from a rope and set to spin, will start with a flat surface.
As the water begins to spin in the bucket, the surface of the water will become concave. If the bucket is stopped, the water will continue to spin, and while the spin continues, the surface will remain concave.Time does not seem to be a vector in the same way that space is; time is unidirectional, or perhaps my mind perceives it in this manner.
Reichenbach tries to explain this geometry and it's consequences, and also tries to incorporate philosophy and epistemology in the regardbouddhiste.coms: The Philosophy of Space and Time has 73 ratings and 5 reviews.
Xander said: Hans Reichenbach, one of the twentieth century philosophers affiliated with t 4/5. Philosophy of space and time is the branch of philosophy concerned with the issues surrounding the ontology, epistemology, and character of space and time. While such ideas have been central to philosophy from its inception, the philosophy of space and time was both an inspiration for and a central aspect of early analytic philosophy.
Although it is clear that Kant is discussing the status of spatial objects vis-à-vis the mind, in part by discussing the relation of space and time to the mind, there is no treatment here of the status of space and time vis-à-vis objects per se. The philosophy of space and time is more intimately connected with the nature of psychical theory than any other branch of philosophy.
Among the more philosophical questions are: – whether it is proper to treat space and time as real things (as, in the words of Newton: . Key problems of the philosophy of time. The philosophy of space and time is more intimately connected with the nature of psychical theory than any other branch of philosophy.