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Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. December Learn how and when to remove this template message Thomson had heart problems and nearly died when he was 9 years old. He attended the Royal Belfast Academical Institutionwhere his father was a professor in the university department, before beginning study at Glasgow University in at the age of 10, not out of any precociousness; the University provided many of the facilities of an elementary school for able pupils, and this was a typical starting age.
In school, Thomson showed a keen interest in the classics along with his natural interest in the sciences. Throughout his life, he would work on the problems raised in the essay as a coping strategy during times of personal stress. These lines inspired Thomson to understand the natural world using the power and method of science: The book motivated Thomson to write his first published scientific paper  under the pseudonym P.
In Thomson graduated as Second Wrangler.
Robert Leslie Ellisone of the examiners, is said to have declared to another examiner "You and I are just about fit to mend his pens. The study of mathematicsphysics, and in particular, of electricity, had captivated his imagination.
He also devised the mathematical technique of electrical images, which became a powerful agent in solving problems of electrostatics, the science which deals with the forces between electrically charged bodies at rest.
It was partly in response to his encouragement that Faraday undertook the research in September that led to the discovery of the Faraday effectwhich established that light and magnetic and thus electric phenomena were related.
He was elected a fellow of St. At twenty-two he found himself wearing the gown of a learned professor in one of the oldest Universities in the country, and lecturing to the class of which he was a first year student but a few years before. Thermodynamics[ edit ] ByThomson had already gained a reputation as a precocious and maverick scientist when he attended the British Association for the Advancement of Science annual meeting in Oxford.
Joule argued for the mutual convertibility of heat and mechanical work and for their mechanical equivalence. Thomson was intrigued but sceptical.
He predicted that the melting point of ice must fall with pressureotherwise its expansion on freezing could be exploited in a perpetuum mobile. Experimental confirmation in his laboratory did much to bolster his beliefs. Inhe extended the Carnot—Clapeyron theory still further through his dissatisfaction that the gas thermometer provided only an operational definition of temperature.
Such a scale would be quite independent of the physical properties of any specific substance. Thomson used data published by Regnault to calibrate his scale against established measurements. In his publication, Thomson wrote: Surprisingly, Thomson did not send Joule a copy of his paper, but when Joule eventually read it he wrote to Thomson on 6 October, claiming that his studies had demonstrated conversion of heat into work but that he was planning further experiments.
Thomson replied on 27 October, revealing that he was planning his own experiments and hoping for a reconciliation of their two views. In February he sat down to articulate his new thinking. However, he was uncertain of how to frame his theory and the paper went through several drafts before he settled on an attempt to reconcile Carnot and Joule.
During his rewriting, he seems to have considered ideas that would subsequently give rise to the second law of thermodynamics. Moreover, his theological beliefs led to speculation about the heat death of the universe. I believe the tendency in the material world is for motion to become diffused, and that as a whole the reverse of concentration is gradually going on — I believe that no physical action can ever restore the heat emitted from the Sun, and that this source is not inexhaustible; also that the motions of the Earth and other planets are losing vis viva which is converted into heat; and that although some vis viva may be restored for instance to the earth by heat received from the sun, or by other means, that the loss cannot be precisely compensated and I think it probable that it is under-compensated.
It is impossible, by means of inanimate material agency, to derive mechanical effect from any portion of matter by cooling it below the temperature of the coldest of the surrounding objects. Thus began a fruitful, though largely epistolary, collaboration between the two men, Joule conducting experiments, Thomson analysing the results and suggesting further experiments.
Thomson published more than scientific papers  and applied for 70 patents not all were issued. Regarding science, Thomson wrote the following. In physical science a first essential step in the direction of learning any subject is to find principles of numerical reckoning and practicable methods for measuring some quality connected with it.
I often say that when you can measure what you are speaking about and express it in numbers you know something about it; but when you cannot measure it, when you cannot express it in numbers, your knowledge is of a meagre and unsatisfactory kind: Though now eminent in the academic field, Thomson was obscure to the general public.
In Septemberhe married childhood sweetheart Margaret Crum, daughter of Walter Crum ;  but her health broke down on their honeymoon and, over the next seventeen years, Thomson was distracted by her suffering. On 16 OctoberGeorge Gabriel Stokes wrote to Thomson to try to re-interest him in work by asking his opinion on some experiments of Michael Faraday on the proposed transatlantic telegraph cable.A guide to the psychodynamic theory of gender development, such as Freud's oedipus complex, electra complex and gender disturbances, for GCSE Psychology.
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