An examination of the causes problems and solutions to the use of excessive force by the police in t

It is part of the contract that landed you here. You may come upon it unexpectedly, or you may see the challenge blowing in like a hurricane, off in the distance. This is fully covered, with accompanying documentation from the U.

An examination of the causes problems and solutions to the use of excessive force by the police in t


While employment equity programs should primarily be viewed as supporting the rights of minority group members to employment, there are also other sound reasons for adopting such a policy. The same will be true of recommending services for victims of crime.

Rousseau: Social Contract: Book III

For example, while most younger Aboriginal people do speak English, they may not fully understand everything said to them by non-Aboriginal police. The need for police who know the language is particularly acute in isolated communities where Aboriginal languages are commonly used and where knowledge of English is minimal.

Hiring sufficient numbers of Aboriginal officers will require a massive recruiting and training effort by Manitoba police forces. Later in the chapter, we will discuss specific hiring targets which Manitoba police forces should adopt. In making this recommendation, we know that the increased numbers will not ensure, by any means, that a significant percentage of police contacts with Aboriginal persons will be handled by Aboriginal officers.

Given the realities of shift-scheduling and the numbers of contacts with the public, Aboriginal people will still frequently encounter non-Aboriginal officers. However, the benefits will be significant. An employment equity policy should be pursued.


Further, imagine that they represented the power to enforce the economic and social customs of that nation, including laws of property, marriage and criminal offence. Imagine the bewilderment of the townspeople of a typical, southern Manitoba town, as they encounter these police officers going about their duties, speaking their own language.

Imagine the bewilderment of the officers as they seek to understand the strange ways of the townsfolk. And imagine the possibilities for confusion, misunderstanding and misapplication of Cree laws and police procedures. This imaginary world is, in fact, quite similar to the experience of many Aboriginal communities and of many Aboriginal individuals when they encounter non-Aboriginal police.

The police function to enforce the norms, actions and wishes of the citizens from the dominant culture, which is alien to Aboriginal people. The resulting confusion on the part of Aboriginal people is frequently matched by the confusion and misunderstanding of the police. While neither group intends to confuse, misunderstand or offend, these are natural consequences of policing from a foreign culture.

Throughout our hearings, we heard many complaints about racist comments made by the police to members of the public and to Aboriginal police officers. We do not believe that most police officers intend to make racist or stereotypical remarks, but some do.

The testimony of Dr. Neil McDonald in this regard was most revealing.

The Problem of Pedestrian Injuries and Fatalities

McDonald is a consultant involved in the research, development and delivery of cross-cultural training materials for public and private agencies across Canada, including the RCMP Depot Training Centre in Regina and the Winnipeg Police Department.

I think racist and prejudiced attitudes are fairly prevalent in society at large. And in my view, at least from my experience, the prejudice towards Aboriginal peoples is probably the strongest, and certainly they are the peoples that are the most widely and wildly stereotyped in our society I would say that the only difference that I would find in my training with police officers, I find this helpful in the sense that it allows me to deal with the attitudes and the views that are in the room McDonald testified about the negative racial attitudes exhibited in the Winnipeg Police Department recruit class ofin which a number of recruits made very strong racist statements about Aboriginal people.

He stated that recruits made statements such as: Officers must come to understand the devastating effects their remarks can have. Therefore, we believe that cross-cultural educational courses should be given to every member of each force.

Cross-cultural courses for recruits should be enhanced and regular refresher courses should also be given to all officers, from the police chief down. Entrance tests should attempt to determine the presence of racial prejudice or intolerance within each recruit or officer and how those recruits and officers are likely to react to people with whom they deal.

Any applicants displaying racist tendencies should be rejected. Racist conduct can be addressed, to some extent, by a combination of carefully thought out, cross-cultural educational programs given to recruits and older officers alike, use of clear and consistent police procedures, and strong and unequivocal leadership.

However, the strongest method of combatting racism is through a clear and unequivocal policy on the part of senior officers of not tolerating such behaviour and of formally disciplining those whose conduct implies overtly or covertly racist approaches to their duties. TOP TOP Even very good cross-cultural education programs cannot overcome the significant barriers between Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal cultures which are frequently produced by language differences.

Probably one of the more perplexing issues which will arise in the course of dealing with Aboriginal accused concerns the admissibility of confessions.

The rules relating to the admissibility of statements by accused persons have been developed to provide protection to an accused. Despite these general safeguards, however, Aboriginal people, particularly those in remote communities and those whose primary language is not English, appear to have special problems in exercising their rights to remain silent and to refrain from incriminating themselves.

Their statements appear to be particularly open to being misunderstood by police interrogators and, as a result, may convey inaccurate information when read out in court.EuSpRIG offers Risk Managers the world's only independent, authoritative & comprehensive web based information describing the current state of the art in Spreadsheet Risk Management.

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(February ) (Learn how and when to remove this template message). Thus at Venice the College, even in the absence of the Doge, is called "Most Serene Prince." The Palatine of Posen, father of the King of Poland, Duke of Lorraine.

Lexis Advance is your legal research solution, efficiently powering your case law research with more relevant results from trusted sources. Try it today! History: Kilgore College is a publicly supported, two-year, comprehensive community college offering postsecondary educational opportunities.

In Kilgore College was the idea of Mr.

An examination of the causes problems and solutions to the use of excessive force by the police in t

W. L. Dodson and the community of Kilgore, Texas. Despite the link between jaywalking and pedestrian injuries and fatalities, jaywalking remains a low-priority police concern.

One reason could be that police tend to lump pedestrian violations into general traffic violations which they often consider minor folk crimes Consequently, police might not enforce jaywalking violations as actively as other more serious crimes.

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